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There is some evidence that marriage counselors and family therapists have an insufficient understanding of domestic violence dynamics, and fail to address the violence, or to spot danger signs. These approaches may be appropriate, e.g. to address co-parenting issues, but only after the man has successfully completed a perpetrator programme and been violence-free for a significant period. There are no controlled empirical studies testing the efficacy of individually delivered domestic violence interventions, and little evidence of individual programme development.

Anger management approaches are not recommended as a domestic violence intervention as they ignore the instrumental function of violence and do not address the power and control issues integral to partner abuse. Anger management programmes have been found to be ineffective with domestic violence perpetrators as they address factors linked to anxiety and self-esteem that are only weakly associated with abuse. Use of anger management approaches may be counterproductive, and reinforce attributions of blame to anger and to partners for ‘provoking’ it, instead of fostering acceptance of responsibility for violence. Approaches that address underlying cognitive distortions and improve emotional literacy are likely to be more effective in reducing abuse.

Model co-ordinate community interventions developed in North America typically involve community agencies and women’s organizations designing and implementing integrated policies, protocols and services to enhance victim safety and offender accountability, BMT depreciation that often include screening programmes, pro or mandatory arrest policies, early intervention schemes, support and advocacy for victims and child witnesses, prompt, assertive prosecution, Close monitoring of offender compliance, use of protection measures such as restraining orders, specialist probation units, linked training programmes for professionals and monitoring of system-wide responses Victim advocates are an integral part of co-ordinated interventions and variously provide safe housing, crisis support, legal advocacy and follow-up support.

The effectiveness of multi-dimensional approaches is harder to evaluate than single strand interventions and most studies have explored the effects of only one or two components. However, there are some promising indications that the combined effects of consistently implemented robust approaches exceed those of free-standing initiatives. Intensive, rigorously enforced probation supervision, based on risk assessment informed 11 by police and victim information, including frequent home visits, contact with victims, and regular drug and alcohol screening, combined with perpetrator programmes and additional risk-related interventions has also shown promising results. There are no evaluations of comprehensive co-ordinate UK interventions partly because many UK initiatives have failed to involve all relevant agencies.